The 1946 Eclaireurs de France Calendar

The 1946 Eclaireurs de France Calendar

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Title: The 1946 Eclaireurs de France Calendar

Author : PECNARD Jacques (1922 - 2012)

Creation date : 1945 -

Dimensions: Height 25 - Width 40

Technique and other indications: gouache

Storage location: Departmental Archives of Val-de-Marne website

Contact copyright: Departmental Archives of Val-de-Marne

Picture reference: Girl Scouts of France Fund, 542J 401

The 1946 Eclaireurs de France Calendar

© Departmental Archives of Val-de-Marne

Publication date: January 2020

Associated researcher

Historical context

Sell ​​the Scouts calendar in 1945

At the end of 1945, the 44,000 Éclaireurs de France sold their annual calendar illustrated by the painter Jacques Pecnard (1922-2012), who trained at the École Éstienne and then at the School of Applied Arts. Familiar with Scout illustration, the Pecnard trait, known to scouts, serves as an activist sale by the young people themselves.

Les Éclaireurs was then chaired by Inspector General Gustave Monod (1885-1968), director of secondary education at the Ministry of National Education. Former project manager for Jean Zay, Monod initiated in 1945 the “new classes” intended to renovate public education through New Education and whose active methods were disseminated by the Éclaireurs (training of boarding school teachers, civic instruction in secondary schools). and high schools).

Image Analysis

Train school youth in the great outdoors

A crouching teenager has just shot the arrow from his bow. The title, the year and the arched arc, emblem of Les Éclaireurs, form the basis of the vertical composition dominated by a blue sky. The concentrated boy frowns and his face shows his determination. The evocation of sculpture remains essential Herakles archer by Antoine Bourdelle (1909). On the monumental bronze, the hero aimed at birds from a steep relief, revealing a powerful musculature. In 1945, the barefoot teenager stood on level ground, a condition of balance for a successful shot. Herakles archer is all the better known as he is then omnipresent in school culture. The iconic sculpture adorns the cover of the Héraklès® notebooks used by all schoolchildren. The scholarly imagery of mythological strength responds to the invitation to the Scouts to imitate the flexibility, strength, and skill of the ancient hero. Tired of still and docile listening in the school grounds, the archer painted by Jacques Pecnard invites you to go outside to experience life in the great outdoors, that which tends the muscles, sharpens the gaze, projects the individual towards the distance . The school which exhausts childhood by its constraint of silence and obedience must seek outside the walls the conditions for its rebirth, thus mobilizing all the student's faculties.

Interpretation

Educate socially and manly

The thick brushing that makes up the blue sky with the light white cloud reinforces the desire to escape. The same shade is found in the scout scarf tied around the neck. Scouting then takes the upper hand in youth policies at the crossroads of educational and social issues as imagined by the public policies of France after the Liberation. Les Éclaireurs then supported the Republic of Young People, ancestors of the Youth Centers. They participate in the nautical and mountain camps of the French Nautical Union and the National Union of Mountain Camps. Since December 1944, they have supervised the lay patronages of the Franks and Franches Comrades. They welcome young people with disabilities in their camps. In connection with the Judicial Protection of Youth created with the ordinance of February 1945, they intervene in the re-education of juvenile offenders. With the CEMEAs, they train normaliennes to monitor summer camps. The blue sky of the 1946 calendar has an obvious consensual dimension, likely to make one forget the ambivalences of scouting under the General Secretariat for Youth (1940-1944). It is also true that, as a patriot, French scouting was loath to serve Vichy anti-Semitism. On the cover of the calendar, the archer’s gaze and the straight lines affirm a manly upbringing. In the inside pages, skiing, swimming and running call for an ideal school of male energy through physical education. Now is the time for the citizens' vote, effective since the municipal elections in spring 1945 and the legislative elections in the fall. The reconciliation of the Pathfinders with the Federation of Girl Scouts began in 1946. But with such a virile evocation, is the co-education of girls and boys really desired by the Pathfinders?

  • Scouting
  • school
  • Liberation (war)
  • education
  • sport
  • youth movement
  • PAJEP

Bibliography

Arnaud BAUBEROT, Nathalie DUVAL, Scouting between war and peace in the 20th century, L’Harmattan, Paris, 2006

Jean-François CONDETTE, Marguerite FIGEAC-MONTHUS, In the footsteps of the past of education ... Heritage and territories of educational research in France, MSHA, Pessac, 2014

Pierre FRANÇOIS, Pierre KERGOMARD, History of the Pathfinders of France from 1911 to 1951, EEDF, Paris, 1983

Laurent GUTIERREZ, Laurent BESSE, Antoine PROST, Reforming the school. The contribution of New Education (1930-1970), PUG, Grenoble, 2012

To cite this article

Nicolas PALLUAU, Center Norbert ELIAS, UMR 8562 University of Avignon / ERHISE team University of Geneva, "The 1946 Calendar of the Eclaireurs de France"

Glossary

  • CEMEA: Training Centers for Active Education Methods: popular education association founded in 1937
  • Scouting: World organization for the moral, physical, practical and civic education of children and adolescents of both sexes created by Lord Robert Baden-Powell in 1907

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